Trip to Palo Alto and vicinity. Part I. Stanford campus

Some time ago I had a chance to visit California (first time in US) and stayed at Palo Alto. Palo Alto and the neighboring area (from San Francisco to San Jose), also known as Silicon Valley, is famous for having the headquarters of well-known technological companies, such as Google, Facebook, Apple to name a few. Besides that, Palo Alto is home to Stanford University, where many tech startups give their roots. I couldn’t miss the chance to visit the campuses of these famous organizations while I stayed there.

The hotel where I stayed was close to Stanford University campus. The first thing to notice while entering campus is the abundance of old trees, the feeling like walking through forest. One can see very old trees:

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And I could make a shot of unique colored bird and squirrel in single picture:

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Tallest building in the campus: Hoover tower, named after US president Herbert Hoover, and nice views from the top of the tower (it was cloudy weather, therefore the images might be darker than usual):

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The set of red-roofed buildings comprising “Main Quad”:

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Panoramic view of Stanford:

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One of sides of Main Quad (one can notice the word “Engineering” there):

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And another corner (“History”). Very finely graved arc surface:

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View between those sides above, statues of two people:

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I asked one of many Chinese tourists wandering around the campus to take a picture at the famous part of the campus:

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“Burghers of Calais”:

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Walkways along the arcs:

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Memorial Church, with detailed painting on the surface of the wall. The church was commissioned by Jane Stanford as a memorial to her husband Leland Stanford:

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Inner Quad courtyard, with tropical palm trees:

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Variety of aloe in one of eight planting circles in the courtyard:

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Buildings outside Main Quad:

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Nice view along the palm trees:

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 Main library building (“Green Library”):

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Stanford has impressive statistics regarding its alumni. Here is the exempt from wikipedia:

Stanford faculty and alumni have founded many companies including Google, Hewlett-Packard, Nike, Sun Microsystems, and Yahoo!, and companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world. Fifty-nine Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the University, and it is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts. Stanford has produced a total of 18 Turing Award laureates. It is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress.

Walking further Main Quad one can find buildings named after very famous people from tech world. One of such buildings is Paul G. Allen Building named after co-founder of Microsoft. The building of Center for Integrated Systems took Allen’s name after he gifted funds to School of Engineering:

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William Hewlett Teaching Center, named after co-founder of Hewlett-Packard (HP):

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David Packard Electrical Engineering, named after the other co-founder of Hewlett-Packard:

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Walking further one can see the Computer Science building:

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… and it is named after … guess who … William (Bill) Gates. He gave 6M$ gift to construct this building:

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I had a chance to go inside this building. Stanford CS students have abundant options for their further career options just from their faculty board 🙂

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It turns out that the architecture of backbone technology of internet – TCP/IP was conceived when Vinton Cerf, its co-author was at Stanford.

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And finally the pictures of students organizing some events:

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I really liked buildings, trees, and atmosphere of Stanford campus, and I think students here truly enjoy their studying.

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Mac OS ушын қарақалпақша раскладка

Macintosh (Mac OS ямаса OS X) операцион системаны пайдаланыўшылар төмендеги раскладканы ислетиў арқалы қарақалпақша шрифтте (кирилл) жазыўы мүмкиншилиги бар.

Бул раскладка инглиз тилдеги ‘qwerty’ раскладка тийкарланған болып, көбирек инглизше териўге үйренгенлер ушын қолайластырылған. Яғный, латын ҳәриплерди терсеңиз, кириллдеги жазыўы экранға басып шығарылады.

Ҳәриплердиң жайласыўын мына сүўретте көриў мүмкин:

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Қарақалпақ тилиндеги қосымша ҳәриплерди териў ушын ‘option ⌥’ клавишасын басып турып, қосымша ҳәрипке жақын болған ҳәрипти басыў керек. Мысалы, ‘ә’ ҳәрибин басып шығарыў ушын, ‘option ⌥’ ды басып турып, ‘а’ ҳәрибин басыў керек. Соған уқсас рәўиште,
‘ҳ’ -> ‘option ⌥’ + ‘x’,
‘ө’ -> ‘option ⌥’ + ‘о’,
‘ғ’ -> ‘option ⌥’ + ‘г’, ҳәм соған уқсас.

Қосымша ҳәриплердиң жайласыўын төмендеги сүўреттен көриўиңиз мүмкин:

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Бул раскладканы пайдаланыў ушын төмендеги силтемеге басып, архивты ашыў керек:

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Архивтың ишинде qaraqalpaqsha_layout.bundle деген файл жайласқан. Сол файлды ‘/Library/Keyboard Layouts’ папкасына көшириў керек. Соннан кейин “System Preferences” ке кирип, төмендеги избе-изликти әмелге асырыў арқалы қарақалпақша раскладка системаңызға қосылады:

1) “Keyboard” қа кирип …

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2) “Input Sources” колонкасын сайлап, ‘+’ кнопкасын басып …

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3) “Kara-Kalpak (Cyrillic)” дегенди белгилеп, “Add” кнопкасын басыў менен қарақалпақша раскладкадан пайдаланып баслаўыңызға болады:

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Атам Әжибай Муртазаев ҳаққында

Кеше 5-май атам (әкемниң әкеси) Әжибай Муртазаевның туўылған күнине арнап, журналист Шарап Уснатдиновтың “Кимге кеш, кимге таң сәҳәр…” атлы китабындағы атам ҳаққында үзиндини блогыма жайластырып атырман.


 

     “Еркин Қарақалпақстан” газетасының басып өткен 75 жыллық өмири даўамында журналистлердиң бирнеше әўлады өтти. Олардың ишинде изсиз умытылып кеткенлери де, қарақалпақ журналистикасының қәлиплесиўине ҳәм жәмийетлик турмысқа үлес қосып кеткенлери де баршылық.

     Мен газетаға тири адамларға қолланатуғын «өмир» деген сөзди пайдаланғанымның себеби, бул газета өзи пайда болған күннен баслап 75 жыл даўамында бир мәртебе тоқтап, жабылып қалған емес. Оның «тамырында» қан айланысы үзилиске түскен жоқ…

     Журналистика тараўында үзликсиз 27 жылдан аслам ўақыт мийнет еткен болсам, соның тең жартысы усы газета редакциясында болды. Көп ғана талантлы адамлар менен ислестим. Олардың жарқын келбетлери кеўилде қалды. Сонлықтан да, олардың бир қатарын байрам алды еске түсиргенди мақул көрдим.

Биринши мийнет жолымды «Жас ленинши»де (ҳәзирги «Қарақалпақстан жаслары») әдебий хызметкер лаўазымынан басладым. Ол жерде ислегениме бир ярым жылға шамаласқан ўақытта, мени сол ўақыттағы жүдә абырайлы шайыр Хожабек Сейтов телефон арқалы шақырды.

Бул кисиниң Қарақалпақстан Министрлер Кеңесиниң Баслығы Наўрыз Жапақов болып турған ўақтында Жазыўшылар аўқамы менен мәмлекетлик радио комитетин басқарып, сол ўақыттағы биринши басшы Н.Махмудов ҳәм басқалар менен шайдай айқасып ислескенин еситип жүргенликтен бе, бул шақырыққа сәл ҳаўлығайын дедим. Мен оны еле үлкен лаўазымда шығар деп ойлайтуғын едим. «Совет Қарақалпақстаны» газетасының мәденият ҳәм әдебият бөлиминиң баслығы екенин сол күни билдим.

Хожабек аға мени бас редактор Әжибай Муртазаевқа алып кирди. Мархум Әжибай аға, жотасы ири, суғы басым, көзи қәҳәрли, асықпай, бирақ сәдде-сәдде етип сөйлейтуғын адам еди. Ол өңменин столға берип отырғанда, әййемги тарийх китапларындағы тас қудайларға усайтуғын еди.

— Сениң жаслар газетасындағы мақалаларыңды бақлап жүрмен, – деп баслады ол сөзин. — Коммунист емес екенсең. ТашМУдиң журналистикасын да толық питкермепсең. Соған қарамастан, сени партиялық газетаға жумысқа шақырғанды мақул көрдик. Мына Хожабек ағаның бөлиминде ислейсең.

Бул, 1966-жылдың сентябри еди. Соннан баслап, усы газетаға 1988-жылдың мартында өзим бас редактор болып тайынланғанға дейин төрт редактор менен ислескен болсам, солардың ишиндеги шебер журналисти ҳәм ҳәр тәреплеме саўатлысы Әжибай аға еди дегениме басқалары өкпелемес.

Себеби, мен Әжибай ағадай етип, газетаға кететуғын материаллардың басым көпшилигин өзи оқып, редакторлайтуғын түнги нәўбетшиликти бәне таўып, яки үлкенлик етип кисиге тапсырып кетпейтуғын, өзине қатал редакторды оннан кейин көрмедим. Бизлер ол ўақытта жас көкирекпиз. Редакцияға түрли партиялық лаўазымлардан ерксиз келип қалған хызметкерлердиң әззилигин көрип ҳәм аяп, ҳәм күлип жүретуғын ўақтымыз.

Газетаның жаңа санына нәўбетшиликтен таңды атырып қайтатуғын едик. Корректураны ишимизден бас редактор менен жарысып оқыймыз. Сонда, стилистикалық ҳәм грамматикалық қәте табыўда Әжибай ағадан озып көрген емеспиз.

Ол киси газета мақалаларындағы бәлент пәрўаз, паң-паң сөзлерге өмиринше қарсы гүресип өтти.

Ондай мақалаларды ҳәтте түнги полосадан алып таслаўдан тайынбайтуғын еди. Оның әсиресе, тилдиң тазалығы бойынша еткен хызметлерин кәсиплеслери ҳәм айырым тилшилер умытсақ жүдә надурыс болар еди. Бурын газета ҳәм барлық баспасөзде ҳәзирги Тақыятас қаласы — «Тахыяташ», ал ҳәзирги Шымбай қаласы — «Чимбай» болып жазылатуғын еди. Әжибай аға дәслеп усы еки атаманы, оннан кейин Майжапты — «Майяб», салыны — «шалы» деп жазыўларға қатты қарсы турып, газетаға дурыслап жаздыра баслады. Бул, үлкен қарсылыққа ушырап, оның мәселесин обкомның идеология бөлими терминологиялық комиссияда қарады. Бул қалалардың атын өзгертип жазсаң — барлық хүжжет ҳәм мөрлерди өзгертиўимиз керек. Қарар шықпағанша өзгертпейсиз, деп қатты тапсырды. Бирақ Әжибай аға оған көнбеди. Бир қыйлы минези де бар еди.

Ол күшли редактор еди. Бирақ, 1969-жылы умытпасам 16-декабрь күни редакцияға от тийиўине байланыстырып, ол кисини босатты. Ал, биз журналистлер оны елеге дейин пир тутамыз. Онын әдиллиги, мақалаларды додалағандағы саўатлылығына ўақтында бас ийгенбиз.

Ең жуўапкерли сиясий ўақыялар алдындағы бас мақаланы өзи жазатуғын еди. Ол күшли дилмаш болды. Партия съездлери ўақтында ҳәптелеп редакцияда қонып, ӨзТАГ бөлиминиң сол ўақыттағы атақлы дилмашлары Жамал аға Қосжетеров, Махмуд аға Идирисовлар менен бир термин үстинде гә айтысып, гә бақырысып қарақалпақшаға аўдаратуғын еди.

Редакциямызда үш адам — Әжибай Муртазаев, Меңлибек Әбдиреймов ҳәм Рустем Қасымовлар ғана телетайптан шыққан русша текстти жазып отырмастан, тиккелей машинисткаға қарақалпақша диктовка қылатуғын еди.

Әжибай ағаның өмири қысқа болды. Бирақ, оның газета ҳәм «Қарақалпақстан» баспасындағы журналистлик жане редакторлық мийнетлери өз алдына, кеңирек сөз етиўге турарлық, деп ойлайман.


 

Бул жоқарыдағы үзинди алынған китаптың сүўретлери:

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Trip to the Aral Sea and around. Part II

In the first part of this post, I put the pictures I shot during my trip to the Aral Sea until the point where we reached the current sea water boundaries in the south-west part. In that post, you were able to see the landscape of the way until Muynak, and some sights in Muynak itself: some shots from the museum dedicated to fishing industry and so-called “cemetery of ships”. Also, you could see the varying landscape of former seabed of Aral and a few shots of the sea waters. In this post, I will continue from the point where I left in the previous one. Particularly, this post will include more shots of the sea water and the landscape around, the amazing canyon-like structures at the edge of Ustyurt plateau, the ancient burials of nomadic people, and the area around Sudochye Lake.

Our driver brought us to the shore of the sea and we could walk into the water up to knee-level. The shore was mud-like surface and we walked with caution not to get slipped and fall into mud or water.

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And here is the panoramic video I took when I went inside of water a couple of meters. So far you could see only pictures of the water, but here you have chance to listen to the waves of the sea as well:

Lot’s of sea shells on the shore:

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Our driver (and tour guide at the same time) told us that there is a sandy shore around 15 km in the north direction from this spot, however, unfortunately, due to time constraints we could not go there.

Here at the shore we found something interesting. We saw some camping place for a few dozens of people, and we were wondering what they were doing here, provided that there was no derrick tower nearby.

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And here is the reason:

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What is that? It turns out that a group of Chinese came here and established a mini-farm for collecting Artemia, which can be used as a feed for fish and also used in pharmacy, according to our guide. It is amazing to realise the fact of nature that when ecological condition changes, it provides basis for habitat for other type of creatures. When salinity increased in the sea, most types of fishes died, however, that increase in salinity provided a natural condition for other type of sea creature, artemia to inhabit the sea.

Around 1 km away from the shoreline we could see something like high hills, around 30m higher than the level of the shore. That was an edge of the Ustyurt plateau, and not some mountain range. From that edge if one goes further in the opposite direction from the sea, all the land is at the same hight, i.e. there is no going down.

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It was already over 6pm when we finished looking around the shore, and we went up the plateau to make camping and have dinner. It turns out that there is a special place for camping over the plateau, where drivers usually stop-by. What makes that place special is that it is surrounded by hills, so that one can enjoy not-so-windy air:

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Another group of people appeared after a while who chose the same place for camping as we did:DSC_0418

Our driver who was cook at the same time, as I mentioned before, prepared delicious plov on the fire:

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And here are our sleeping tents. It was really cold near the morning:

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The edge of Ustyurt plateau:

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View of the sea from the edge of Ustyurt plateau:

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Full moon:
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Moon on the rock 🙂

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The light beams from the moonlight can be seen over the sea:

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Before sleeping, I asked the tour about what time we can see the sunrise. We were in the very good location to see the sun rising over the sea. After getting to know the approximate time, I set my alarm to 15 minutes before that, so that I wouldn’t miss it for sure.

I woke up from the alarm as expected and was getting ready to shoot the half sun under the water scene 🙂 It was already bright, but the sun did not yet appear:

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And you know what? The sky on the direction where the sun would appear was covered by the clouds. I was disappointed about that fact, but we can do nothing about that, so I accepted that truth and went on taking other shots:

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At last the sun appeared over the clouds:

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After taking shots, we had breakfast and wrapped up the sleeping tents and continued our tour. The way ahead was the path along the edge of Ustyurt until Sudochye Lake, where we would stop by and have lunch there. As we started driving over the Ustyurt we could see amazing landscapes:

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After driving a few dozens of kilometers over the Ustyurt plateau, we saw lots of stones piled up. After coming close, it turned out to be burials of some nomadic tribes:

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Each grave contains stone plate and some geometrical figures are engraved on the stone surface. We assumed that these figures represent the tribe to which the buried people belong:

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These stone shapes and the signs on it in above pictures looked quite primitive. We were initially thinking that this burials could be dated back many centuries. However, we saw this finely engraved script (I guess Arabic?) on well-formed piece of stone, which finely contrasts from all other stones. Maybe these writings could give the answer about the origin of this place. If there is anyone who can read and understand that script among readers of this post, I would be glad if (s)he translates it to English. If the script is Arabic, then it could be written in Karakalpak language as it was based on arabic script until 1928:

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Another writing on ordinary stone:

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After seeing around these burials, we went on our path and after another dozens of kilometers passed, we could see huge cracks of landmass resembling canyons. Here is it, “Grand Canyons” of Ustyurt:

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And in another few dozens of kilometers, we came close to Sudochye Lake:

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After driving many kilometers of desert-like landscape, Sudochye Lake appeared as an oasis in the middle of desert. The word “Sudochye”, as our driver told, originated from the expression “Suw dushshi”, which means “fresh water” in Karakalpak. It turns out that besides huge salty Aral sea there was a fresh water basin which is also supplied with water from Amudarya. Even though the biodiversity is in catastrophic condition in big Aral itself, here in Sudochye there are many types of fishes inhabiting this lake. The importance of this lake to this region cannot be underestimated, and big attention is directed towards saving the biodiversity in Sudochye and around.  According to our driver, there is a fish specie called Sander (судак in Russian, or сыла in Karakalpak) that inhabits in Sudochye that can live in only freshwater. And as far as Sander fish can inhabit the Lake, we can be sure that the salinity of that lake is in normal range, i.e. otherwise if salinity increased, Sander fish would just die:

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In these pictures we can notice some abandoned houses, probably quite long time ago. As our driver told, a Gulag camp was located here and these people lived in those houses. That was surprising for me, as I did not know about that fact before. Gulag is a government administration of Soviet forced labor camp operated from 1930 to 1960 for political prisoners and other criminals. Those people probably made living here mainly by fishing in Sudochye.

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Not that far away from those houses, we found some cemetery of that community who lived in that camp. We can notice that they belong to some branch of Christianity from the crosses over the burials. The cross shape is a variation of the generic Christian cross, and after googling I found that it is Orthodox Cross:

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After going around that place we went down close to the Lake and had some meal there. It turns out that a group of around 10 people regularly comes here for fishing. And we had fried fish for lunch prepared by those fishermen from freshly caught fish from the Lake:

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After finishing our lunch we went on our tour, and on the way we saw this structure. According to our driver, it was lighthouse that assisted the ships for navigation in this area. He told us that in the past periodically Aral and Sudochye used to be connected when water levels rise. And at those times, the ships from Aral could easily come to Sudochye:

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And some shots from the top of that former lighthouse:

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The other side, my fellow travellers:

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Here we can see the water channel that is coming from Amudarya and supplying Sudochye:

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… zooming in:

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After that we went down from Ustyurt plateau and headed back home.

This trip was very interesting, informative and exciting for me. One can realize that the Aral Sea has very complex nature and not a conventional sea. It is essential to point that Karakalpakstan is not just place covered mostly by plain boring deserts, but with a lot of interesting locations with unique history.

Posted in Aral Sea, English, Karakalpakstan, Travel | Tagged | 3 Comments

Trip to the Aral Sea and around. Part I

Before taking my vacations and going home, I was thinking to allocate time to the Aral Sea trip during my vacations. Even though I was born and grew up in the region where most part of the Aral Sea is located, I never had a chance to see the Aral Sea. While my parents did have a chance to see the Aral and go there for recreational activities when it was full several decades before, there was not much reason to do so when I grew up as much part of the water had gone far away from its original coastline. The interest for visiting the Aral Sea especially increased after reading a book titled Disaster By Design: The Aral Sea and its Lessons for Sustainability. And a few days after I arrived to Nukus I could find the person who organizes such trips thanks to my friend who gave me contact points. “Jipek Joli” hotel turned out to be organizing such trips on regular basis as most of its residents are foreign tourists who are interested in the Aral Sea.

This post contains lots of pictures I took during my trip to the Aral Sea with the descriptions for some of them.

The snapshot of the mentioned hotel from its right corner:

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The hotel provided a Toyota Landcruiser with experienced driver who can navigate very well in the Aral Sea area (even without GPS(!)). Our driver had multiple functions: besides actual driving, he was a tour guide and our cook 🙂 I shared this trip with three residents of that hotel, one American and a German couple. In the morning of September 19, we started our trip. It was two day and one night trip and first day agenda was to visit Muynak first and then going to the current shore of south west part of the Aral Sea and stay there overnight. The second day agenda included driving over Ustyurt Plateau, visiting Sudochye Lake and on the way back, visiting Mizdakhan complex.

In the below snapshot from Google EarthTM software, we can see the current state of the Aral Sea shot approximately in April 2013:

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The destination point for the first day in this trip was the water basin of remaining Aral Sea on the south-western shore.

And here is the slightly magnified image of the above and the approximate route we took for two days (the route might not be that accurate, I draw it just based on my perception):

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As we can see from the red path, we went through Kungrad, Muynak and the former shore of Aral to the south-western shore. And on the way back, we drove on the edge of Ustyurt plateau, visited Sudochye Lake and went back through Kungrad to Nukus.

I took several landscape shots on the way to Muynak:

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And we can see some houses of Muynak from here:

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Some water reservoir near Muynak:

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And finally, we entered Muynak. If we pay attention to the entrance sign of Muynak, we can notice several objects. We can see the painting of fish in cylindrical object, possibly symbolising the fish canning factory once flourished here. And we can see the water waves and the sea bird flying over the sea, symbolizing the sea shore once reached here:

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In Muynak, we stopped at museum which was located in the center of the city. This shot is the opposite side of the museum, where we can see the symbolic boat on the far right:

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The museum is mainly about the fishing industry and canning factory once employing the whole city. We can see the cans of variety of fishes once inhabited in the Aral Sea, before salinity increased to the level that was fatal for the most fish types.

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This statue used to stand in front of the canning factory in Muynak:

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Aral Sea and Aralkum:

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The Aral Sea from the outer space:

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The remainings of the ships once floating in the Aral:

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The canning factory, view inside, from the historical pictures:

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And after ending museum tour, we went to the former coastline in Muynak. It is hard to imagine that water used to reach this place before. Nothing but the desert can be seen in the horizon:

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And we come closer and what we see is this. The so-called “cemetery of ships”:

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The panoramic view from the high spot:
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One very clear evidence that there was a sea once here. It is just amazing to see sea shells on the desert:

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And closer view to those rusted ships:

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Tourists visited here left some writings, including this in Korean:

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Just imagine that you are on the board of this ship, and what you see around is only water:

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The cabin of some ship:

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and its engines:

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And two big ships located close to each other:

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After we finished looking around these rusted ships, we went on our trip. Our driver told us that we will pass nearby the canning factory on the way and the other three guys wanted to see that canning factory, but it turns out that for some reasons, the mayor of Muynak (or some other high-rank official) is not fond of curious tourists wandering around canning factory. And we were told that stopping there, coming close and taking some pictures is not good idea, as we might have some troubles with local police. The driver told that he himself ran into troubles in one of his previous trips when he stopped to let the tourists he is guiding to see around. What we could only do was to take some shots while we are passing on the vehicle:

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We continued our trip and the way ahead was no longer asphalted road, as we started entering into the former lakebed of Aral. We drove over two line trace left by many vehicles passing in that direction in an massive open area of Aralkum. On our way we saw many natural gas extracting towers, which are called derrick tower. As it was mentioned earlier in the picture titled “Aral Sea and Aralkum”, in the former lakebed of the Aral Sea large deposits of natural gas has been discovered and many foreign oil and gas companies besides local ones are engaged in that project these days. Here are some pictures of such derrick towers:

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We have passed different landscapes on our way, some areas containing bushes here and there and other areas where you can’t find anything but plantless plain lands:

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It was such a strange feeling. The feeling of absolute silence. In our fast-paced world we are always exposed to some kind of noise, but here there is absolutely nothing around which could produce some sound. Perfect place for obtaining peace of mind 🙂

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The green world appear as we come closer to water:

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And at last, we reached the destination, here is the blue sea, the south-west point of the Aral Sea:

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And here it is, a shot taken from high spot, the beautiful blue water:

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This is the end of the part I and I will continue posting other pictures and descriptions on the part II, which will come soon 😉

Posted in English, Travel | 5 Comments

Шанхай: Впечатления и фото-отчет

Шанхай, в-общем, оставил впечатление очень современного и развитого города. Это огромный город с населением в 23 миллиона (!) жителей и с общей площадью 10 раз превышающей общей площади Сеула (согласно Википедии). Действительно много людей я заметил на празднике 1 мая в центральной части города, а так, как мне показалось, вся городская инфраструктура построена таким образом что и транспорт и пешеходы образуют организованное движение. Одним из трудностей для туристов может быть то, что очень трудно найти людей которые говорят на английском на улице, если это не отель или высотки финансового центра Шанхая – Пудонгa.

В Шанхае можно найти сооружения различных культур, от традиционных, старинно-европейских до современных небоскребов где иногда верхушка не видна из-за скрытия слоем тумана. Стоит отметить, что в Шанхае в XIX веке из-за удобного географического расположения Франция, Великобритания и США боролись за свое господство в этом городе, и преуспели они по-разному. Франция, например, имела свое владение в одном из районов города и что удивительно, эта территория до сих пор существует и именуется эта территория как french concessions.

Теперь фотки (Все фотки кликабельны). Вот традиционные здания находящиеся на территории именуемая Yuyuan Garden:


Теперь старинно-европейские которые находятся в The Bunde по береговой линии реки Huangpu. Особенно красиво они выглядят ночью:

И наконец, финансовый центр города и один из финансовых центров Восточной Азии – район Пудонг. Эдакий Манхэттен Шанхая. Вот, общий вид на Пудонг из другой стороны реки Huangpu:

И то же самое место с той же самой точки только ночью (из-за непрекращающего тумана верхушки здании как бы исчезли):

И видео-панорама Пудонга и The Bund:

Вот и мы уже в Пудонге:

Вид извне Пудонга:

Народу было много в тот день (1 мая – День Труда):

И фото на память на фоне Oriental Pearl TV Tower:

На сегодня этим наш пост заканчивается. Продолжение фото-отчета следует в ближайших постах.

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Гейтс и филантропия

Представьте что Вы очень успешный бизнесмен и обладатель 40-миллиардного состояния. Что нет в мире материального блага которую Вы не можете приобрести. И что вашего состояния хватит для пра-пра-…-внукам. Чем Вы бы дальше хотели бы заниматься?

Материальные блага по всему миру распределена очень неровно (и отчасти несправедливо). Если некоторые негодуют от того что родители не купили ему/ей очередной iPad или другую игрушку, или если некоторые жалуются что не могут купить новую машину имея другую, то в некоторых частях света есть люди которым не хватает самых базовых нужд, такая как еда, качественная питьевая вода, лекарства. Или есть те которые умирают от таких болезней как малярия или полиомелит, которые в развитых странах уже давно не является проблемой.

Так наверно подумал Билл Гейтс перед тем как решить основать филантропическую организацию «Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation» вместе со своей женой. С его непосредственным участием компьютерные технологии изменили нашу жизнь за последние два десятки лет. Сейчас мало ли кто представляет свою жизнь без персональных компьютеров, лаптопов, мобильных телефонов, смартфонов и главное без интернета. Раз уж инновация и технология в компьютерной индустрии сильно повлияло на жизнь многих, почему бы инновации в других областях не делать то же самое. Особенно это касается улучшения жизни миллиардов людей в мире у которых очень ограниченный доступ ко многим ресурсам.

Билл Гейтс и его организация занимаются филантропией и инвестируют в исследования в таких сферах как здравоохранение, сельское хозяйство и улучшение жизни в крайне бедных странах мира, а также образование и энергетика. В первую очередь, они начали свою работу с вакцинации. В конце девяностых, Билл и Мелинда Гейтс прочитали статью где они обнаружили что в мире миллионы детей в бедных странах умирают от такой болезни как ротавирус, которая десятки лет назад успешно ликвидирована в США, о которой они вообще не слышали. Они подумали, что это должно быть ошибка, т.к. если одна болезнь убивает миллионы людей, они бы услышали и узнали бы это. Но к сожалению, это была правдой. В нашем неровном мире, некоторые жизни считаются более важными чем другие. Потом они сказали себе, «Стоп, так не должно быть. Каждая жизнь имеет одинаковую ценность». С таким убеждением они начали изучать и инвестировать в исследования которые способствует снижению стоимости вакцин и также способы достичь каждого ребенка в отдельно взятой стране или в регионе. Такие болезни как малярия, полиомиелит, ротавирус (которая вызывает диаррею), пневмокок давно уже не является проблемой для развитых стран из-за стопроцентной иммунизации детей соответствующими вакцинами. Но они до сих пор убивают миллионы детей в самых бедных уголках земли.

В своей ежегодной письме в 2011, Б. Гейтс говорит, что один из главных приоритетов их организации, это ликвидирование полиомиелита в мире. Сейчас, уровень иммунизации полиомиелита достигла 99% и остались только четыре страны, где распространение полиомиелита пока не остановлено: это Индия, Нигерия, Пакистан и Афганистан. Ликвидация полиомиелита посредством инвестиции в вакцины могло бы искоренить гибели связанных с полио, устранить затраты на его лечение последующие годы и смогло бы быть примером того, что опасные болезни могут быть устранены. Он говорит, что при охвате соответствующие страны вакциной от полиомиелита которая стоит всего $0.13 за дозу, они смогли бы спасти 3 миллиона жизни и избавится от расходов на $2.9 млрд на последующие лечения.

Вторая болезнь с которой их организация активно борятся это малярия. Малярия является причиной около одного миллионов жертв в год, особенно, случаи малярии распространены в тропической Африке. С 2000 по 2009 годы число жертв от этой болезней уменьшился на 26%, и недавно Туркменистан и Морокко стали страной без единой случай малярии. Известно, что малярия передается человеку через укус особого типа комара и одним из эффективных средств против малярии являются противомоскитные сетки. Их организация совместно с «The Roll Group Malaria» и ВОЗ поставили цель снабдить такими сетками всех кто в нем нуждаются за следующие несколько лет. В Сенегале, где у 80% семьей имеется противомоскитные сетки случаи малярии уменьшились на 41% в один год. Они также работают над снижением стоимости анти-маляриных лекарств, которые все еще не доступны многим из-за высокой цены. Конечным пунктом в борьбе с малярии будет изобретение вакцины с низкой стоимостью и высокой эффективностью. Работа по этой направлении уже идут полным ходом.

Во многих развивающийся странах для большинства населения сельское хозяйство все еще остается основным источником доходов. Организация Билла и Мелинды Гейтс считают, что инновации в сельском хозяйстве могут коренным образом изменить жизнь миллиарды людей в мире к лучшему. Они уже инвестировали почти $2 млрд в помощь бедным фермерам, чтобы они смогли увеличить продуктивность землей и в то же время сохранить фертильность земли для будущих поколении. Для таких фермеров такие явления как засуха, наводнение или заражение урожая паразитами пагубно воздействуют на них и оставляет их без еды на долгое время. Поэтому, их организация инвестируют в исследования на выработку особых сортов риса, пшеницы, кукурузы которые устойчивы к различным погодным явлениям и также к паразитам.

То чем занимается Билл Гейтс и его организация не может не вызывать глубокое уважение. Человек с большой буквы который достиг наивысших высот в компьютерной индустрии, даже можно сказать человек с кем ассоцируется компьютерная эволюция конца 90-х и начало 2000-х теперь выбрал другую роль. Помощь самой бедной части земного населения. И не просто одноразовая помощь как таковой, а помощь которая дает этим же людям способность сами решать свои проблемы. С его интеллектом, с его энтузиазмом и с его ресурсами можно надеятся на то что мир изменится к лучшему. Желаю ему и его организации удачи!

Источники:

1. http://www.gatesfoundation.org/

2. http://www.thegatesnotes.com/

Posted in Russian, The Great People | 2 Comments